Growing numbers of U.S. colleges are pledging to reopen this fall, but they're planning dramatic changes to campus life to keep the coronavirus at bay.

Big lectures will be a thing of the past. Dorms will house a fraction of their usual capacity.

Students will face mandatory virus testing. At some smaller schools, students may be barred from leaving campus.

Even the most optimistic schools are crafting contingency plans in case an outbreak forces them online, but colleges say the financial and political pressures to reopen are too large to ignore.

Those planning to reopen include Purdue University and Texas A&M University and the University of Notre Dame.

The California State University system, in contrast, has said its 23 campuses will stay online this fall.

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